For three motoneuron pools that differ in excitability to Ia inputs [tibialis anterior (TA), abductor pollicis brevis (APB), and soleus], F-wave parameters were measured at rest, during voluntary contraction, and following prolonged vibration. There was an inverse relationship between F-wave chronodispersion and F-wave persistence at rest, and this appeared to be related to the ease of recording the H reflex for the motoneuron pool. During a steady voluntary contraction, overall F-wave activity increased in amplitude but decreased in duration for TA and APB. Following vibration of the test muscle at 50 HZ for 10 min there was a long-lasting depression of the H reflexes of TA and APB, but no significant change in F-wave measurements. These findings are consistent with the view that reflex discharges can prevent F waves in low-threshold motor units, and that chronodispersion is affected by the extent of reflex activity; that is, chronodispersion and related F-wave measurements do not measure motor properties exclusively. The findings also suggest that F waves provide a flawed measure of the excitability of the motoneuron pool.