Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) mediate demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in different animal species and are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to evaluate the anti-MOG response, we have analyzed the cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) from 44 MS patients and 51 controls, 11 with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and 40 with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND). The frequency of anti-MOG antibodies positive patients in the MS group (30%) was significantly higher compared to the NIND (8%, p=0.02), but not compared to the OIND group (55%, p=0.228). Interestingly, all six patients with neurosarcoidosis had MOG-specific antibodies in their CSF. Frequency of anti-MOG antibodies was similar in patients with clinically active and stable MS (32% and 26%, respectively; p=0.921). However, in clinically active MS patients, antibody titers were higher in comparison with patients with stable disease, although the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance (p=0.06). These results further support the potential role of anti-MOG antibodies in the immunopathology of MS in the subset of patients with this disease. Furthermore, our findings suggest for the first time that anti-MOG antibodies could be an accessory diagnostic tool in neurosarcoidosis.