Lifestyles, environmental and phenotypic factors associated with lip cancer: a case-control study in southern Spain

Br J Cancer. 2003 Jun 2;88(11):1702-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6600975.


The aim of this study was to identify factors related to lip cancer (LC) considering individual characteristics and sociodemographic factors. A case-control study was carried out in the province of Granada (Andalusia, southern Spain). The cases were 105 males with squamous-cell carcinoma of the lip, diagnosed between 1987 and 1989 (aged 20-70 years) and identified by means of a population-based Cancer Registry. As controls, a randomised populational sample of 239 males, stratified by age, was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors are lifetime cumulative tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption. An interaction was found between alcohol consumption and the smoking habit (leaving the cigarette on the lip): OR=23.6; 95% CI: 3.9-142.0. Other risk factors identified are clear eyes (OR=3.5; CI: 95% 1.5-8.0), sun exposure early in life and cumulative sun exposure during outdoor work (OR=11.9; 95%: CI: 1.3-108.9), and skin reaction to sun exposure (Fitzpatrick levels). Another interaction was found between skin reaction and a previous history of common sporadic warts (OR=4.4; 95% CI: 1.01-19.1). We conclude that LC is related to phenotype, skin reaction to sun exposure, cumulative and early sunlight exposure, and tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as a low educational level. Leaving the cigarette on the lip is predictive of LC risk irrespective of cumulative tobacco consumption.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Environment*
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Life Style*
  • Lip Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Lip Neoplasms / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Sunlight / adverse effects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires