Background: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a kallikrein family member with serine protease activity commonly used as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer. We recently described anti-angiogenic properties of PSA [Fortier et al.: JNCI 91:1635-1640].
Methods: Two forms of PSA were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris: one, an intact PSA with an N-terminus of IVGGVS em leader; the second, an N-1 PSA variant. The recombinant proteins were tested for serine protease activity and for anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo.
Results: The rate of substrate hydrolysis by the intact recombinant PSA was similar to that of PSA isolated and purified from human seminal plasma. In contrast, the N-1 PSA variant lacked serine protease activity. In an endothelial cell migration assay, the concentration that resulted in 50% inhibition (IC(50)) was: 0.5 microM for native PSA, 0.5 microM for intact recombinant protein, and 0.1 microM for the N-1 variant PSA. Both the intact recombinant and the N-1 recombinant PSA inhibited angiogenesis in vivo.
Conclusions: Purified recombinant PSA inhibits angiogenesis, proving the concept that PSA is an anti-angiogenic, and serine protease activity, as determined by synthetic substrate hydrolysis, is distinct from the anti-angiogenic properties of PSA.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.