Effects of antihypertensive agents, alpha receptor blockers, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers, on oxidative stress

J Hypertens. 2003 Jun;21(6):1207-11. doi: 10.1097/00004872-200306000-00022.


Background: Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension disease (HD). Trace elements function as a co-factor in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including HD, but these subjects have not been investigated as a whole in these patients.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidative system and trace elements in hypertensive patients given different antihypertensive therapy.

Methods: We examined malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activities together with copper and zinc levels in plasma of 102 patients with HD and in 51 healthy controls.

Results: It was found that in patients with HD, plasma malondialdehyde was significantly higher than those of controls, while plasma superoxide dismutase activities were significantly lower in patients with HD. Plasma zinc levels were significantly higher than those of controls and plasma copper levels were significantly lower in patients with HD. Plasma lipid levels and oxidative state were analyzed in five different treatment groups given antihypertensive drug therapy before and after a 3-month treatment period.

Conclusions: In conclusion, our clinical study shows that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have notable effects on oxidative stress, and are an essential step in managing essential hypertension by the way of improvement of endothelial dysfunction. Although it has been shown that calcium channel blockers, beta blockers and alpha receptor blockers have antioxidant effects in in vitro conditions, we did not demonstrate these effects in our clinical study.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / administration & dosage
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / administration & dosage
  • Adult
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / administration & dosage
  • Copper / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / blood*
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Superoxide Dismutase / blood
  • Zinc / blood


  • Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Copper
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Zinc