Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has a significant impact on airway function and may induce or exacerbate the response to a subsequent allergic challenge. In a murine model combining early RSV infection with later cockroach allergen (CRA) challenge, we examined the role of RSV-induced CCL5/RANTES production on allergic airway responses. RSV infection increased CCL5 mRNA and protein levels, peaking at days 8 and 12, respectively. Administration of CCL5 antiserum during days 0-14 of the RSV infection did not significantly alter viral protein expression when compared to mice treated with control serum. In mice receiving the combined RSV-allergen challenge, lungs collected on day 22 exhibited significantly increased numbers of CD4- and CD8-positive T cells. This increase in T cell numbers was not observed in mice receiving alpha-CCL5. On day 43, peribronchial eosinophilia and leukotriene levels were increased in RSV-allergen mice. Pretreatment with CCL5 antiserum resulted in decreased recruitment of inflammatory cells to bronchoalveolar and peribronchial regions of the lungs and these reductions were associated with a reduction in both T cell recruitment into the bronchoalveolar space, leukotriene release and chemokine generation. Thus, CCL5 released during RSV infection has a significant effect on the inflammatory response to subsequent allergic airway challenges.