The susceptibility of thermally injured mice (TI-mice) to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection is markedly influenced by burn-associated type 2 T cell responses, which are common with severe thermal injuries. In the present study, the effect of soluble IL-4 receptor (sIL-4R) on the skin-graft-associated MCMV infection was investigated. The marked growth of MCMV was demonstrated in the salivary glands of TI-mice grafted with MCMV seropositive [MCMV sero(+)] skin. However, the growth of MCMV was not demonstrated in the salivary glands of TI-mice grafted with MCMV sero(+) skin and treated with 50ng per mouse of sIL-4R. Compared with grafted normal mice, production of type 1 cytokines was markedly decreased when splenic T cells from TI-mice grafted with MCMV sero(+) skin were stimulated with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The impaired type 1 cytokine production was recovered in cultures of splenic T cells from grafted TI-mice previously treated with sIL-4R. After grafting with MCMV sero(+) skin, the growth of MCMV was markedly inhibited in the salivary glands of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice inoculated with T cells from TI-mice treated with sIL-4R. These results suggest that sIL-4R regulates the skin-graft-associated MCMV infection in TI-mice.