Plant biotin-containing carboxylases

Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Jun 15;414(2):211-22. doi: 10.1016/s0003-9861(03)00156-5.


Biotin-containing proteins are found in all forms of life, and they catalyze carboxylation, decarboxylation, or transcarboxylation reactions that are central to metabolism. In plants, five biotin-containing proteins have been characterized. Of these, four are catalysts, namely the two structurally distinct acetyl-CoA carboxylases (heteromeric and homomeric), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and geranoyl-CoA carboxylase. In addition, plants contain a noncatalytic biotin protein that accumulates in seeds and is thought to play a role in storing biotin. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases generate two pools of malonyl-CoA, one in plastids that is the precursor for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and the other in the cytosol that is the precursor for fatty acid elongation and a large number of secondary metabolites. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes a reaction in the mitochondrial pathway for leucine catabolism. The exact metabolic function of geranoyl-CoA carboxylase is as yet unknown, but it may be involved in isoprenoid metabolism. This minireview summarizes the recent developments in our understanding of the structure, regulation, and metabolic functions of these proteins in plants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase / chemistry*
  • Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase / metabolism
  • Biotin / chemistry*
  • Carbon-Carbon Ligases / chemistry
  • Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases / chemistry
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Leucine / chemistry
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Chemical
  • Plant Physiological Phenomena
  • Protein Conformation
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Substrate Specificity


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Biotin
  • Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases
  • holocarboxylase synthetases
  • Carbon-Carbon Ligases
  • Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase
  • geranoyl-CoA carboxylase
  • Leucine