Background: With the introduction of effective antituberculous chemotherapy, the clinical outcome of tuberculous peritonitis depends much on the diagnostic accuracy of this disease entity. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art thinking regarding the protean manifestation and diagnostic modalities of this major infectious disease.
Data sources: This review was compiled after an extensive search of the current and historical literature, comprising 1,070 cases of tuberculous peritonitis. A number of important areas were highlighted, with emphasis on the diagnostic value and clinical impact of peritoneal biopsy.
Conclusions: We believe an aggressive diagnostic approach, particularly with peritoneal biopsy, is warranted for the diagnosis and timely treatment of tuberculous peritonitis.