We have identified RELMgamma, a novel member of the resistin-like molecule/found in inflammatory zone (RELM/FIZZ) family in mice and rats. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed a repression of RELMgamma mRNA in nasal respiratory epithelium of cigarette smoke-exposed versus untreated rats. The analysis of the physiological tissue-specific expression revealed highest expression in hematopoietic tissues, suggesting a cytokine-like role for RELMgamma. RELMgamma is most closely related to RELMalpha/FIZZ1. Despite the high similarity, the expression properties of the two genes are clearly distinct. While RELMgamma (approved symbol retnlg) is expressed in rat white adipose tissue, minute to no expression of RELMalpha was detected in that system. Thus, previous reports analyzing RELMalpha expression in rat adipose tissue might have been influenced by cross-hybridization with RELMgamma. Finally we could demonstrate that white adipose tissue of mice shows strong RELMalpha expression but only low levels of RELMgamma, indicating a species-specific gene regulation.