Cystic fibrosis is characterised in the lungs by high levels of neutrophil elastase (NE). NE induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression via an IL-1 receptor-associated kinase signalling pathway. Here, we show that these events involve the cell surface membrane bound toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We demonstrate that human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells transfected with a TLR4 cDNA (HEK-TLR4) express TLR4 mRNA and protein and induce IL-8 promoter activity in response to NE. Treatment of both HEK-TLR4 and human bronchial epithelial cells with NE decreases TLR4 protein expression. Furthermore, a TLR4 neutralising antibody abrogates NE-induced IL-8 production, and induces tolerance to a secondary lipopolysaccharide stimulus. These data implicate TLR4 in NE induced IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelium.