PAI-1 level and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in relation to risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction: results from the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP)

Thromb Haemost. 2003 Jun;89(6):1064-71.


This study examines the relationship between plasma Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, and their association with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, this study explores whether a high level of PAI-1 or whether the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism synergistically interacts with any established environmental risk factor for MI. This case-referent study of subjects aged 45-70 and living in Stockholm includes 851 men and 361 women with first-time MI and 1051 men and 505 women who were randomly chosen as referents from a population register. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of MI was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.8) for men with a plasma PAI-1 activity level greater than the 90 th percentile value of referents. The corresponding OR for women was 1.5 (95% CI 0.9-2.5). A strong indication of synergistic interaction was found in men for the co-exposure to high plasma PAI-1 activity and current smoking, an adjusted synergy index score of 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-13.2). In women, the 4G allele was associated slightly with an increased risk of MI, OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9). This association was not found in men. There were no clear indications of synergistic interaction effects involving the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and the environmental exposures considered (cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, overweight, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, high C-reactive protein and hypertriglyceridaemia).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Frameshift Mutation
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology
  • Habits
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / blood
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Myocardial Infarction / genetics*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / blood*
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Risk Factors
  • Sweden / epidemiology


  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1