There is substantiating evidence to support the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Inflammation of the prostate is mediated through the cytokine-induced expression of several factors such as chemokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2. The balance between the effects of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines determines the outcome of the inflammatory process. Several proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been identified in CPPS patients, their roles characterized, and their inter-relationships defined. Study of this system will provide further insights into the etiology of CP/CPPS, and lead the way for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for this morbid condition.