Anti-Aspergillus activities of plant essential oils and their combination effects with ketoconazole or amphotericin B

Arch Pharm Res. 2003 May;26(5):389-93. doi: 10.1007/BF02976696.


The essential oils from Cedrus atlantica, Styrax tonkinensis, Juniperus communis, Lavandula angustifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Pelargonium graveolens, Pogesternon patchouli and Rosmarinus officinalis were analyzed by GC-MS. Antifungal activities of the oils were investigated by disk diffusion assay and the broth dilution method against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus. The effects of geraniol and the essential oil fraction from P. graveolens on the antifungal activity of amphotericin B and ketoconazole were examined using a checkerboard microtiter assay against both Aspergillus fungi. Most of the tested essential oils, with the exception of C. atlantica, J. communis, and P. patchouli, significantly inhibited growth of A. niger and to a lesser extent that of A. flavus, with MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) in the range 0.78-12.5 mg/mL. The essential oil fraction of P. graveolens and its main components, geraniol and citronellol, exhibited additive effects with amphotericin B and with ketoconazole against both Aspergillus species, resulting in fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices ranging from 0.52 to 1.00.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amphotericin B / pharmacology*
  • Antifungal Agents / analysis
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Aspergillus / drug effects*
  • Aspergillus flavus / drug effects
  • Aspergillus niger / drug effects
  • Drug Synergism
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Ketoconazole / pharmacology*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Oils, Volatile / analysis
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Plant Oils / analysis
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology*


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Oils
  • Amphotericin B
  • Ketoconazole