Newly recognized components of the renin-angiotensin system: potential roles in cardiovascular and renal regulation

Endocr Rev. 2003 Jun;24(3):261-71. doi: 10.1210/er.2003-0001.


The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a coordinated hormonal cascade in the control of cardiovascular, renal, and adrenal function that governs body fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as arterial pressure. The classical RAS consists of a circulating endocrine system in which the principal effector hormone is angiotensin (ANG) II. ANG is produced by the action of renin on angiotensinogen to form ANG I and its subsequent conversion to the biologically active octapeptide by ANG-converting enzyme. ANG II actions are mediated via the ANG type 1 receptor. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the components and actions of the RAS, including local tissue RASs, a renin receptor, ANG-converting enzyme-2, ANG (1-7), the function of the ANG type 2 receptor, and ANG receptor heterodimerization. The role of the RAS in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function is reviewed and discussed in light of these newly recognized components.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin I / physiology
  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena*
  • Dimerization
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / physiology
  • Kidney / physiology*
  • Peptide Fragments / physiology
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / physiology
  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 / physiology
  • Receptors, Angiotensin / chemistry
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / physiology
  • Renin / metabolism
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology*


  • Isoenzymes
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2
  • Receptors, Angiotensin
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Angiotensin I
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • Renin
  • angiotensin I (1-7)