Background: Previous studies have shown that polyhydroxylated flavonoids such as quercetin and genistein can inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro, and preliminary in vivo studies of the flavone L86-8275 have shown growth inhibition of LX529 and A549 lung carcinomas. L86-8275 [(-)cis-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-8[4-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl)- piperidinyl]-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one] is a flavone of novel structure.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro whether L86-8275 is a more potent inhibitor of growth in breast carcinoma and lung carcinoma cells than quercetin or genistein.
Methods: We studied the effects of L86-8275 on cell growth in seven breast carcinoma cell lines and five lung carcinoma cell lines. MDA468 breast carcinoma was then selected for further study. Cell proliferation was measured by a colorimetric dye reduction assay; synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein by incorporation of the radioactive metabolic precursors thymidine, uridine, or leucine, respectively; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content by a luciferase-mediated bioluminescence reaction; and cell cycle progression by the use of cell-synchronizing drugs (aphidicolin and nocodazole) and flow cytometry.
Results: L86-8275 was not cytotoxic to stationary-phase cells but reversibly inhibited the growth of cells in exponential growth phase. At concentrations of 25-160 nM, L86-8275 inhibited growth of human breast and lung carcinoma cell lines by 50%. MDA468 breast carcinoma cells were 60-fold and 400-fold more sensitive to L86-8275 than to quercetin and genistein, respectively. By 24 hours after addition of L86-8275, DNA synthesis in MDA468 cells was inhibited by greater than 95%, protein synthesis by 80%, and RNA synthesis by 40%-60%, under conditions that preserved cellular ATP levels at approximately 80%-90% of control values. When MDA468 cells released from aphidicolin-induced cell cycle arrest were exposed to 200 nM L86-8275, they completed the S phase but arrested in G2. When cells released from nocodazole-induced cell cycle arrest were exposed to 200 nM L86-8275, they completed mitosis but arrested in G1.
Conclusions: L86-8275 is a potent, yet reversible, growth-inhibitory flavone that can selectively block cell cycle progression in vitro at more than one point in the cell cycle.
Implications: These findings suggest that L86-8275 is a candidate for further preclinical development, as well as a model for the synthesis of other flavonoids that might potently delay cell cycle progression to achieve inhibition of tumor growth. Future studies need to address optimal schedules for antiproliferative activity in vivo and inhibition of clonogenic activity.