Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Simultaneous inhibition of fungal cell-wall and cell-membrane biosynthesis may result in synergistic interaction against Aspergillus fumigatus. We studied the antifungal activity of micafungin, a new echinocandin, in combination with ravuconazole, a second-generation triazole, against experimental invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in persistently neutropenic rabbits. This combination led to significant reductions in mortality (P</=.001), residual fungal burden (P</=.05), and serum galactomannan antigenemia (P</=.01), compared with either agent alone. Combination therapy also resulted in reduction (P</=.05) of organism-mediated pulmonary injury and of pulmonary infiltrates detected by thoracic computed tomography (P</=.001). No toxicity was observed with the echinocandin-triazole combination. An MTT hyphal damage assay demonstrated significant in vitro synergistic interaction between the antifungal triazole and the echinocandin. The combination of an antifungal triazole and echinocandin may represent a new strategy for treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.