Immunohistochemical expression of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, tumor-suppressor gene products, Ki-67, and sex steroid receptors in endometrial carcinoma: positive staining for cyclin A as a poor prognostic indicator

Hum Pathol. 2003 May;34(5):471-8. doi: 10.1016/s0046-8177(03)00124-2.


Although aberrant expression of several cell-cycle regulators has been reported in endometrial carcinoma, correlations among these factors and their prognostic significance have not fully been elucidated. In the present study, expression of cyclins (D1, E, A, and B1), cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk2, cdk4, and cdc2), and tumor-suppressor gene products (p53, p21, and p27) were systematically examined by immunohistochemistry in 82 cases of endometrial carcinoma and 20 normal endometria. Results were compared with the expression of Ki-67, sex steroid receptor status, clinicopathological parameters, and patient outcomes. Positive staining for cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cdk2, cdk4, cdc2, p53, p21, and p27 was observed in 63%, 66%, 31%, 32%, 51%, 77%, 71%, 43%, 35%, and 60% of the 82 carcinomas, respectively. Among these factors, positive staining for cyclin D1, cdk4, and p53 was significantly frequent in advanced-stage tumors, and that for cyclin D1, cyclin A, cdk4, p21, and p53 was more frequent in higher-grade tumors. High correlation was found between cyclin A and p53 expression, between cyclin D1 and cdk4 expression, between cdk4 and Ki-67 expression, and between p21 and Ki-67 expression. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors for poor prognosis were advanced stage and cyclin A positivity. These findings suggest that various cell-cycle regulators are involved in activated cell growth of endometrial carcinoma, and that positive staining for cyclin A could be a useful marker for unfavorable patient prognosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism*
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / surgery
  • Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism
  • Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism*
  • Cyclins / metabolism*
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism*
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cyclins
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases