Objective: The objective of this study was to measure stroke volumes produced by precordial compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and to quantitate relationships of stroke volume to measurements of end-tidal carbon dioxide.
Design: A prospective, observational animal study.
Setting: Medical research laboratory in a university-affiliated research and educational foundation.
Subjects: Domestic pigs.
Interventions: Eighteen anesthetized male, domestic pigs weighing between 40 and 45 kg were investigated. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and continued for intervals ranging from 4 to 10 mins. Precordial compression was maintained at 80 per minute together with mechanical ventilation after endotracheal intubation.
Measurements and main results: Stroke volumes were measured with the aid of transesophageal echocardiographic imaging. End-tidal carbon dioxide was quantitated with conventional capnography. Baseline values of thermodilution cardiac output were highly correlated with echocardiographic measurements (r =.92). The stroke volume index produced by precordial compression averaged 0.45 mL/kg or approximately 37% of the average prearrest value of 1.22 mL/kg. The end-tidal carbon dioxide was highly predictive of stroke volume index (r =.88, p <.001) with a mean bias of 0.003 mL/kg.
Conclusions: We confirmed that precordial compression produces approximately one third of prearrest stroke volumes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and demonstrated that end-tidal carbon dioxide was quantitatively predictive of stroke volume index estimated by transesophageal echocardiographic imaging.