Many pharmacological and nonpharmacologic neuroprotective therapies are in various phases of animal or human testing. The future in acute ischemic stroke therapy most likely will consist of combination therapies (Bonnono et al., 2000; Schellinger et al., 2001). An IV thrombolytic agent may be combined with an IA agent and then followed up with a neuroprotective strategy early in treatment of acute ischemic stroke. A hemicraniectomy may be combined with hypothermia to improve outcome (Georgiadis et al., 2002). Many resources (Fig 2) are available to assist neuroscience nurses in keeping abreast of this fast-paced area of development.