Objectives: The purpose of the present paper is to review available information on the treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.
Materials and methods: The results of animal research and human studies are presented. Proposed strategies for the treatment of peri-implantitis presented in the literature are also included.
Results: Most of the information accessible at this time derives from case reports. The reports provide evidence that efforts to reduce the submucosal infection may result in short-term improvements of the peri-implant lesion. They also indicate that regenerative procedures in intrabony peri-implant defects can result in the formation of new bone.
Conclusions: Several uncertainties remain regarding the treatment of peri-implantitis. Properly conducted long-term follow-ups of consecutively treated cases would seem to be a realistic avenue for accumulation of more information. This may assist in establishing the predictability, magnitude and stability of improvements that can be achieved.