Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are well-known causes of acute renal insufficiency and gastropathy in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. This action is presumed to result from nonselective inhibition of both constitutive and inducible forms of prostaglandin H synthases, also known as the cyclooxygenase enzymes (i.e., COX-1 amd COX-2). Celecoxib (Celebrex) is a COX-2 enzyme inhibitor and has emerged as a preferred therapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as compared to other NSAIDs. Celecoxib has recently been the subject of criticism for its side effects, mainly arterial thrombosis and renal hemorrhage, although it is considered a superior drug in protecting the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we report that celecoxib not only inhibited COX-2, but also exhibited the property of inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, an important enzyme forming the intracellular second messenger 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Celecoxib also inhibited cholera toxin-stimulated cAMP formation, which indicated its ability to permeate cell membranes in order to reach intracellular adenylyl cyclase. It inhibited in vitro adenylyl cyclase activity in both human colonic epithelial cells and purified adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis. The IC50 of celecoxib for B. pertussis adenylyl cyclase was calculated to be 0.375 mM. Lineweaver-Burk analysis showed that the type of enzyme inhibition was competitive. The apparent Km and Vm of adenylyl cyclase was calculated as 25.0 nM and 7.14 nmol/min/mg, respectively. Celecoxib changed the Km value to 66.6 nM without affecting the Vmax. The current study suggests that apart from inflammation, celecoxib therapy could be further extended to diseases involving cAMP upregulation either by endogenous reactions or exogenous agents. These new data showing inhibition of adenylyl cyclase should be considered in light of the drug's pathological effects or in patients specifically excluded from treatment (e.g., asthmatics).