Composition, quality control, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of long-time stored dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seeds from Bulgaria

J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jun 18;51(13):3854-7. doi: 10.1021/jf030004y.


The essential oil of long-time stored seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) from Bulgaria was analyzed by physicochemical methods, gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectrometry (MS) (achiral and chiral phases), and olfactometry, and its antimicrobial activity was tested by using different strains of microorganisms. More than 40 constituents of the essential dill oil, obtained from seeds stored for more than 35 years, could be identified as essential volatiles, responsible for the pleasant fresh (D-limonene) and spicy (D-carvone) odor of a high quality. As aroma impact compounds, D-carvone (50.1%) and D-limonene (44.1%) were found. Antimicrobial testings showed high activity of the essential A. graveolens oil against the mold Aspergillus niger and the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans.

MeSH terms

  • Anethum graveolens / chemistry*
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Aspergillus niger / drug effects
  • Candida albicans / drug effects
  • Chromatography, Gas
  • Cyclohexane Monoterpenes
  • Cyclohexenes
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Limonene
  • Monoterpenes
  • Oils, Volatile / chemistry*
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Plant Oils / chemistry
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / drug effects
  • Seeds / chemistry*
  • Terpenes / analysis
  • Time Factors
  • Volatilization


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Cyclohexane Monoterpenes
  • Cyclohexenes
  • Monoterpenes
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Oils
  • Terpenes
  • carvone
  • Limonene