The immunoprotective potential of a recombinant vaccine against the incapacitating effect of aerosolized staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in nonhuman primates is reported. SEB belongs to a family of structurally related superantigens responsible for serious, life threatening pathologies. Injecting the recombinant SEB vaccine did not induce temperature elevation in rhesus monkeys, a classical symptom of toxic-shock syndrome. No temperature elevation was noted following injection with control tetanus toxoid. In addition to 100% survival, we observed a clear correlation between vaccine dose and mitigation of temperature elevation after a lethal SEB aerosol challenge. We conclude that the recombinant SEB vaccine is non-pyrogenic and that monitoring changes in body temperature is an important biomarker of toxic shock in a primate animal model.