Hypothesis: Normal resuscitation (oxygen delivery index [DO2I] >/=500 mL/min per square meter), compared with supranormal trauma resuscitation (DO2I >/=600 mL/min per square meter), requires less crystalloid volume, thus decreasing the incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
Design: Retrospective analysis of a prospective database.
Setting: Twenty-bed intensive care unit (ICU) in a regional level I trauma center.
Patients: Patients with major trauma (injury severity score >15, initial base deficit >/=6 mEq/L, or need for >/=6 units of packed red blood cells in the first 12 hours) or age 65 years or older with any 2 of the previous criteria.
Interventions: Shock/trauma resuscitation protocol: pulmonary artery catheter, gastric tonometry, urinary bladder pressure measurements, lactated Ringer infusion, packed red blood cell transfusion, and moderate inotrope support, as needed, in that sequence, to attain and maintain a DO2I greater than or equal to 600 mL/min per m2 (16 months, ending January 1, 2001, n = 85) or a DO2I greater than or equal to 500 mL/min per square meter (16 months, starting January 1, 2001, n = 71) for the first 24 hours in the ICU.
Main outcome measures: Lactated Ringer infusion volume (liters) at ICU admission, gastric partial carbon dioxide minus end-tidal carbon dioxide(GAPCO2), IAH (urinary bladder pressure measurements >20 mm Hg), ACS (urinary bladder pressure measurements >25 mm Hg with organ dysfunction), multiple organ failure, and mortality.
Results: Demographics, injury severity, and shock severity parameters were similar in both groups. The supranormal resuscitation group required more lactated Ringer infusion volume in the first 24 hours in the ICU (mean +/- SD, 13 +/- 2 vs 7 +/- 1 L; P<.05) and had higher GAPCO2 (16 +/- 2 vs 7 +/- 1 mm Hg; P<.05). In the supranormal group, IAH (42% vs 20%; P<.05) and ACS (16% vs 8%; P<.05) were more frequent. The conventional trauma outcomes, such as multiple organ failure (22% vs 9%; P<.05) and mortality (27% vs 11%; P<.05) were less favorable in the supranormal resuscitation group.
Conclusion: Supranormal resuscitation, compared with normal resuscitation, was associated with more lactated Ringer infusion, decreased intestinal perfusion (higher GAPCO2), and an increased incidence of IAH, ACS, multiple organ failure, and death.