The present study examined the possibility for regeneration of pancreatic endocrine cells from centroacinar (CA) and intercalated duct (ICD) cells in rat pancreas after 5 days of continuous streptozotocin (STZ) administration. Nine rats were divided into 3 experimental groups: 1) Control group, 2) Short term recovery group; three days after STZ administration (STZ 3), and 3) Long term recovery group; ten days post-STZ administration (STZ 10). The CA and ICD cells in the STZ 3 group had swollen cytoplasm, and sometimes contained a vesicle within the core. An insulin positive signal was detected in and around the CA and ICD cells. In the STZ 3 group, cytokeratin 20 signals were co-localized with insulin signals in both CA and ICD cells. Electron microscopically, endocrine cells and small pancreatic islets were in close contact with CA and ICD cells. Systemic biophysical serum data reflected these immunohistological results. The present results suggest that CA and ICD cells are involved in the regeneration of pancreatic B cells in rats following a lesion produced by five consecutive days of STZ administration.