Fox's in development and disease

Trends Genet. 2003 Jun;19(6):339-44. doi: 10.1016/S0168-9525(03)00111-2.


Since the first forkhead (Fox) gene was identified, the importance of this family of transcription factors has increased steadily with the discoveries of the diverse range of developmental processes that they regulate in eukaryotes. Among other processes, the Fox factors are important in the establishment of the body axis and the development of tissues from all three germ layers. In this article, we present some of the recent data on this gene family with reference to selected phenotypes observed in patients and model organisms, and the sensitivity of developmental processes to alterations in forkhead gene dosage.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anterior Eye Segment / abnormalities*
  • Anterior Eye Segment / pathology
  • Cornea / abnormalities
  • Cornea / pathology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Eye Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Eye Abnormalities / pathology
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Humans
  • Iris / abnormalities
  • Iris / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mutation
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / physiology


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • FOXC1 protein, human
  • FOXE3 protein, human
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Foxc1 protein, mouse
  • Foxe3 protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factors
  • mesenchyme fork head 1 protein