The familial Alzheimer's disease gene product amyloid beta protein precursor (A beta PP) is sequentially processed by beta- and gamma-secretases to generate the A beta peptide. Although much is known about the biochemical pathway leading to A beta formation, because extracellular aggregates of A beta peptides are considered the cause of Alzheimer's disease, the biological role of A beta PP processing is only recently being investigated. Cleavage of A beta PP by gamma-secretase releases, together with A beta, a COOH-terminal A beta PP intracellular domain, termed AID. Hoping to gain clues about proteins that regulates A beta PP processing and function, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with the AID region of A beta PP. One of the interactors isolated is the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) adapter protein. This molecular interaction is confirmed in vitro and in vivo by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and in cell lysates. Moreover, we show that reduction of ARH expression by RNA interference results in increased levels of cell membrane A beta PP. These data assert a physiological role for ARH in A beta PP internalization, transport, and/or processing.