Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg

J Sex Res. 2003 Feb;40(1):36-49. doi: 10.1080/00224490309552165.


The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Conflict, Psychological*
  • Culture*
  • Estonia
  • Female
  • Finland
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Russia
  • Sexual Behavior / psychology*