Kinki Infection Working Group made an annual (1998-2000) comparative study of an epidemiological investigation for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Kinki district. The number of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated decreased for three years, but the isolation frequencies of MRSA has not changed which was approximately 60%. All strains of MRSA were not resistant to vancomysin (VCM) and teicoplanin (TEIC), and the frequencies of resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) and arbekacin (ABK) were 0.1 to 0.7% and 1.9 to 3.1%, respectively. On the other hand, the number of S. aureus and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) isolated did not show a consistent tendency, but the isolation frequencies of PRSP has increased for three years. All strains of PRSP were sensitive to vancomycin (VCM), but the frequencies of resistance to cefaclor and other some antibiotics have increased.