A hitherto undescribed Actinomyces-like bacterium was isolated from human urine. Based on its biochemical characteristics, the unidentified bacterium did not correspond to any currently described Actinomyces species or related taxa. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the unknown bacterium exhibits a specific phylogenetic association with the genus Actinobaculum, but a sequence divergence of > 5% from the two currently recognized members of this genus, Actinobaculum schaalii and Actinobaculum suis, demonstrates that it represents a distinct species. Based on both phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence considerations, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium from urine should be classified as a novel species, Actinobaculum urinale sp. nov. The type strain of Actinobaculum urinale is CCUG 46093(T) (= CIP 107424(T)).