Bombesin-like peptides (BLPs) are elevated in newborns who later develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In baboon models, anti-BLP blocking antibodies abrogate BPD. We now demonstrate hyperplasia of both neuroendocrine cells and mast cells in lungs of baboons with BPD, compared with non-BPD controls or BLP antibody-treated BPD baboons. To determine whether BLPs are proinflammatory, bombesin was administered intratracheally to mice. Forty-eight hours later, we observed increased numbers of lung mast cells. We analyzed murine mast cells for BLP receptor gene expression, and identified mRNAs encoding bombesin receptor subtype 3 and neuromedin-B receptor (NMB-R), but not gastrin-releasing peptide receptor. Only NMB-R-null mice accumulated fewer lung mast cells after bombesin treatment. Bombesin, gastrin-releasing peptide, NMB, and a bombesin receptor subtype 3-specific ligand induced mast cell proliferation and chemotaxis in vitro. These observations support a role for multiple BLPs in promoting mast cell responses, suggesting a mechanistic link between BLPs and chronic inflammatory lung diseases.