Effect of broadcast manure on runoff phosphorus concentrations over successive rainfall events

J Environ Qual. May-Jun 2003;32(3):1072-81. doi: 10.2134/jeq2003.1072.

Abstract

Concern over eutrophication has directed attention to manure management effects on phosphorus (P) loss in runoff. This study evaluates the effects of manure application rate and type on runoff P concentrations from two, acidic agricultural soils over successive runoff events. Soils were packed into 100- x 20- x 5-cm runoff boxes and broadcast with three manures (dairy, Bos taurus, layer poultry, Gallus gallus; swine, Sus scrofa) at six rates, from 0 to 150 kg total phosphorus (TP) ha(-1). Simulated rainfall (70 mm h(-1)) was applied until 30 min of runoff was collected 3, 10, and 24 d after manure application. Application rate was related to runoff P (r2 = 0.50-0.98), due to increased concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in runoff; as application rate increased, so did the contribution of DRP to runoff TP. Varied concentrations of water-extractable phosphorus (WEP) in manures (2-8 g WEP kg(-1)) resulted in significantly lower DRP concentrations in runoff from dairy manure treatments (0.4-2.2 mg DRP L(-1)) than from poultry (0.3-32.5 mg DRP L(-1)) and swine manure treatments (0.3-22.7 mg DRP L(-1)). Differences in runoff DRP concentrations related to manure type and application rate were diminished by repeated rainfall events, probably as a result of manure P translocation into the soil and removal of applied P by runoff. Differential erosion of broadcast manure caused significant differences in runoff TP concentrations between soils. Results highlight the important, but transient, role of soluble P in manure on runoff P, and point to the interactive effects of management and soils on runoff P losses.

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Eutrophication*
  • Manure*
  • Phosphorus / analysis*
  • Phosphorus / chemistry
  • Poultry
  • Rain*
  • Solubility
  • Swine
  • Water Movements

Substances

  • Manure
  • Phosphorus