Mechanisms of TGF-beta Signaling From Cell Membrane to the Nucleus

Cell. 2003 Jun 13;113(6):685-700. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00432-x.

Abstract

TGF-beta signaling controls a plethora of cellular responses and figures prominently in animal development. Recent cellular, biochemical, and structural studies have revealed significant insight into the mechanisms of the activation of TGF-beta receptors through ligand binding, the activation of Smad proteins through phosphorylation, the transcriptional regulation of target gene expression, and the control of Smad protein activity and degradation. This article reviews these latest advances and presents our current understanding on the mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Active Transport, Cell Nucleus / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Cell Membrane / genetics
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism*
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Eukaryotic Cells / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular
  • Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics
  • Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Smad Proteins
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*

Substances

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Smad Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta