Vesl/Homer proteins physically link proteins that mediate cellular signaling [Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 10 (2000) 370; Trends Neurosci. 23 (2000) 80; J. Cell Sci. 113 (2000) 1851] and thereby influence cellular function [Nat. Neurosci. 4 (2001) 499; Nature 411 (2001) 962]. A previous study reported that Vesl-1L/Homer-1c (V-1L) controls the gain of the intracellular calcium activated calcium channel ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) channel [J. Biol Chem. 277 (2002) 44722]. Here, we show that the function of RyR1 is differentially regulated by two isoforms of Vesl-1/Homer-1, V-1L and Vesl-1S/Homer-1a (V-1S). V-1L increases the activity of RyR1 while important regulatory functions and pharmacological characteristics are preserved. V-1S alone had no effect on RyR1, even though, like V-1L, it is directly bound to the channel. However, V-1S dose-dependently decreased the effects of V-1L on RyR1, providing a novel mechanism for the regulation of intracellular calcium channel activity and calcium homeostasis by changing expression levels of Vesl/Homer proteins.