Secretion of organic anions by the kidney plays a critical role in the elimination of toxic agents from the body. Recent findings in isolated membranes and intact tissue have demonstrated the participation of multiple transport proteins in this process. As a first step toward molecular characterization of these proteins through expression cloning, the studies reported below demonstrate functional expression of both fumarate- and lithium-sensitive glutarate and probenecid-sensitive p-aminohippurate transport in Xenopus oocytes injected with rat kidney poly(A)+ RNA. Maximal increase in substrate uptake over buffer-injected controls was reached by 5 days after mRNA injection. Expression of size-fractionated mRNA indicated that the active species with respect to both transport activities were in the range of 1.8 to 3.5 kb.