DISC1 (Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1) is a centrosome-associated protein that interacts with MAP1A, MIPT3, ATF4/5 and NUDEL: regulation and loss of interaction with mutation

Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Jul 1;12(13):1591-608. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddg162.


Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a novel gene associated with schizophrenia by multiple genetic studies. In order to determine how mutations in DISC1 might cause susceptibility to schizophrenia, we undertook a comprehensive study of the cellular biology of DISC1 in its full-length and disease-associated mutant forms. DISC1 interacts by yeast two-hybrid, mammalian two-hybrid, and co-immunoprecipitation assays with multiple proteins of the centrosome and cytoskeletal system, including MIPT3, MAP1A and NUDEL; proteins which localize receptors to membranes, including alpha-actinin2 and beta4-spectrin; and proteins which transduce signals from membrane receptors, including ATF4 and ATF5. Truncated mutant DISC1 fails to interact with ATF4, ATF5 or NUDEL. Deletion mapping demonstrated that DISC1 has distinct interaction domains: MAP1A interacts via its LC2 domain with the N-terminus of DISC1, whereas MIPT3 and NUDEL bind via their C-terminal domains to the central coiled-coil domain of DISC1, and ATF4/5 bind via their C-terminal domains to the C-terminus of DISC1. In its full-length form, DISC1 protein localizes to predominantly perinuclear punctate structures which extend into neurites in some cells; mutant truncated DISC1, by contrast, is seen in a diffuse pattern throughout the cytoplasm and abundantly in neurites. Both forms co-localize with the centrosomal complex, although truncated less abundantly than full-length DISC1. Although both full-length and mutant DISC1 are found in microtubule fractions, neither form of DISC1 appears to bind directly to microtubules, but rather do so in a MIPT3-dependent fashion that is stabilized by taxol. Based on these data, we propose that DISC1 is a multifunctional protein whose truncation contributes to schizophrenia susceptibility by disrupting intracellular transport, neurite architecture and/or neuronal migration, all of which have been hypothesized to be pathogenic in the schizophrenic brain.

MeSH terms

  • Activating Transcription Factors
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Centrosome / metabolism
  • Centrosome / ultrastructure*
  • DNA, Complementary / metabolism
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Library
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism*
  • Microtubules / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Genetic
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology*
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Precipitin Tests
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Schizophrenia / genetics
  • Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Sindbis Virus / genetics
  • Subcellular Fractions / metabolism
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transfection
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques


  • Activating Transcription Factors
  • Atf5 protein, mouse
  • DISC1 protein, human
  • DNA, Complementary
  • MAP1A protein, human
  • MAP1A protein, mouse
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • TRAF3IP1 protein, human
  • Transcription Factors
  • Serine Endopeptidases