Several lines of evidence from experimental animal models of infection have clearly demonstrated the feasibility of a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine against Helicobacter pylori. However, comparatively few clinical studies have been carried out to evaluate whether the positive results obtained in animals can be reproduced in humans. The preliminary results obtained with single component, mucosally delivered vaccines have shown very limited results thus far. Very good immunogenicity and safety profiles are now being obtained with parenterally delivered, aluminium hydroxide-adjuvanted multicomponent candidate vaccines. For sure, better vaccine formulations, better antigen preparation(s), better adjuvants, and better delivery systems have to be designed and tested for safety and immunogenicity. These studies are also needed for deciphering those aspects of the effector immune responses that correlate with protection against H. pylori infection and disease.