PTSD affects a substantial number of women in medical settings and is associated with significant distress and impairment. There are effective methods of treating trauma-related distress, but a minority seek such care. Thus, primary care is an important setting in which to identify individuals with PTSD. We sent questionnaires, including the PTSD Checklist--Civilian Version (PCL-C), to 419 female veterans who were seen in our primary care clinic in 1998; 56% (N = 221) returned the measures. A random subset (n = 49) was interviewed to establish psychiatric diagnoses. The results provide qualified support for the use of the PCL-C total score with a lowered cutoff score as a screening measure for PTSD in female veterans in primary care.