New approaches to the endocrine prevention and treatment of breast cancer

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;52 Suppl 1:S39-44. doi: 10.1007/s00280-003-0645-5. Epub 2003 Jun 18.


All major endocrine prevention approaches act via the estrogen receptor (ER). A simple hypothesis concerning ER expression and breast cancer risk is outlined. We review breast cancer prevention trials with tamoxifen, raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and ovarian suppression. Current and planned endocrine prevention trials in populations of pre- and postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer are summarized and endocrine therapy after primary surgery and for advanced disease discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride / therapeutic use
  • Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis
  • Risk
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use*
  • Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
  • Tamoxifen
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride