Histones are first hyperacetylated and then lose contact with the activated PHO5 promoter

Mol Cell. 2003 Jun;11(6):1599-607. doi: 10.1016/s1097-2765(03)00186-2.


We have analyzed the histone modification status of the PHO5 promoter from yeast by the ChIP technology and have focused on changes occurring upon activation. Using various acetylation-specific antibodies, we found a dramatic loss of the acetylation signal upon induction of the promoter. This turned out to be due, however, to the progressive loss of histones altogether. The fully remodeled promoter appears to be devoid of histones as judged by ChIP analyses. Local histone hyperacetylation does indeed occur, however, prior to remodeling. This can explain the delay in chromatin remodeling in the absence of histone acetyltransferase activity of the SAGA complex that was previously documented for the PHO5 promoter. Our findings shed new light on the nucleosomal structure of fully remodeled chromatin. At the same time, they point out the need for novel controls when the ChIP technique is used to study histone modifications in the context of chromatin remodeling in vivo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • Histones / metabolism*
  • Kinetics
  • Nucleosomes / chemistry
  • Nucleosomes / metabolism
  • Phosphate Transport Proteins / genetics*
  • Phosphates / metabolism
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transcriptional Activation*


  • Chromatin
  • Histones
  • Nucleosomes
  • Phosphate Transport Proteins
  • Phosphates
  • phosphate permease