Multiple-dose safety and pharmacokinetics of oral garenoxacin in healthy subjects

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jul;47(7):2256-63. doi: 10.1128/AAC.47.7.2256-2263.2003.


Garenoxacin (T-3811ME, BMS-284756) is a novel des-F(6) quinolone that has been shown to be effective in vitro against a wide range of clinically important pathogens, including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of multiple oral doses (100 to 1200 mg/day) of garenoxacin in healthy subjects and to determine its multiple-dose pharmacokinetics. Forty healthy male and female subjects (18 to 45 years of age) were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential, multiple- and ascending-dose study. Each subject received a once-daily oral dose of garenoxacin (100, 200, 400, 800, or 1200 mg) or a placebo for 14 days. Blood and urine samples were collected for measurements of garenoxacin by validated liquid chromatography with dual mass spectrometry, and plasma garenoxacin concentration-time data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods. The effects of garenoxacin on Helicobacter pylori, psychometric test performance, and electrocardiograms were assessed, as was drug safety. Over the 14 days of dosing, geometric mean peak concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma (C(max)) at the 100- and 1200-mg doses were within the ranges of 1.2 to 1.6 and 16.3 to 24 microg/ml, respectively. The corresponding values for the geometric mean area under the concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUC(tau)) for garenoxacin in plasma at the 100- and 1200-mg doses were within the ranges of 11.5 to 15.7 and 180 to 307 microg. h/ml, respectively. Increases in systemic exposure to garenoxacin in terms of AUC and C(max) were approximately dose proportional over the 100- to 400-mg dose range but demonstrated increases that were somewhat greater than the dose increments at the 800- and 1200-mg doses. Median values for the time to achieve C(max) were in the range of 1.13 to 2.50 h for all doses. The mean elimination half-life for garenoxacin in plasma appeared to be independent of dose and ranged from 13.3 to 17.8 h (day 14). Approximately 30 to 50% of an administered garenoxacin dose was excreted unchanged in the urine. At doses of 100 to 400 mg, steady-state concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma appeared to be attained by the fourth dose. Multiple oral doses of garenoxacin were well tolerated and did not demonstrate clinically significant effects on QT(c) or psychometric test results. Garenoxacin administered alone for 14 days at doses of >or=400 mg demonstrated activity against H. pylori. These results suggest that multiple once-daily oral doses of garenoxacin of up to 1200 mg are safe and well tolerated and that the pharmacokinetics of garenoxacin support once-daily administration.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Electrocardiography
  • Fluoroquinolones*
  • Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy*
  • Helicobacter pylori / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Indoles / administration & dosage*
  • Indoles / adverse effects
  • Indoles / pharmacokinetics*
  • Placebos
  • Psychometrics
  • Quinolones / administration & dosage*
  • Quinolones / adverse effects
  • Quinolones / pharmacokinetics*


  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Indoles
  • Placebos
  • Quinolones
  • garenoxacin