Aims: To examine the efficacy of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system for treatment adjustment in patients with diabetic pregnancy treated with insulin.
Methods: The study sample consisted of eight women with diabetic pregnancy, six with pre-pregnancy Type 1 diabetes mellitus and two with gestational diabetes (GDM), all being treated with multiple daily insulin injections. Gestational age ranged from 24 to 32 weeks. Data derived from the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (MiniMed) for 72 h were compared with fingerstick glucose measurements (six to eight times a day), and treatment was adjusted on the basis of the findings. Two to four weeks later, the patients were re-evaluated with CGM.
Results: In the first part of the study, an average of 744+/-33 glucose measurements was recorded for each patient with CGM. The mean total time of hyperglycaemia (glucose level >7.7 mmol/l) undetected by the fingerstick method was 152+/-33 min/day. Nocturnal hypoglycaemic events (glucose level <2.7 mmol/l) were recorded in seven patients. Based on the additional information obtained by continuous monitoring, the insulin regimen was changed in all patients. CGM re-evaluation after treatment adjustment showed a reduction in undetected hyperglycaemia to 89+/-17 min/day and in nocturnal hypoglycaemic events, which were recorded in only one patient.
Conclusions: Continuous glucose monitoring may diagnose high blood glucose levels and nocturnal hypoglycaemic events that are unrecognized by intermittent blood glucose monitoring and could serve as a useful tool for the long-term management of diabetic pregnancies. A large prospective study is needed to determine the clinical implications of this new monitoring technique.