Field evaluation of a "lethal ovitrap" (LO) to control dengue vector Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), was undertaken in two Brazilian municipalities, Areia Branca and Nilopolis, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The LO is designed to kill Aedes via an insecticide-treated ovistrip (impregnated with deltamethrin). In each municipality, the intervention was applied to a group of 30 houses (10 LOs/house) and compared to 30 houses without LOs in the same neighbourhood. Five LOs were put outside and five LOs inside each treated house. Three methods of monitoring Aedes density were employed: (i) percentage of containers positive for larvae and/or pupae; (ii) total pupae/house; (iii) total adult females/house collected by aspirator indoors. Weekly mosquito surveys began during the month before LO placement, by sampling from different groups of 10 houses/week for 3 weeks pre-intervention (i.e. 30 houses/month) and for 3 months post-intervention in both treated and untreated areas. Prior to LO placement at the end of February 2001, Aedes aegypti (L) densities were similar among houses scheduled for LO treatment and comparison (untreated control) at each municipality. Very few Ae. albopictus (Skuse) were found and this species was excluded from the assessment. Post-intervention densities of Ae. aegypti were significantly reduced for most comparators (P < 0.01), as shown by fewer positive containers (4-5 vs. 10-18) and pupae/house (0.3-0.7 vs. 8-10) at LO-treated vs. untreated houses, 3 months post-treatment at both municipalities. Numbers of adult Ae. aegypti females indoors were consistently reduced in LO-treated houses at Areia Branca (3.6 vs. 6.8/house 3 months post-intervention) but not at Niloplis (approximately 3/house, attributed to immigration). These results demonstrate sustained impact of LOs on dengue vector population densities in housing conditions of Brazilian municipalities.