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. 2003 Jul 1;31(13):3381-5.
doi: 10.1093/nar/gkg520.

SWISS-MODEL: An Automated Protein Homology-Modeling Server

Free PMC article

SWISS-MODEL: An Automated Protein Homology-Modeling Server

Torsten Schwede et al. Nucleic Acids Res. .
Free PMC article


SWISS-MODEL ( is a server for automated comparative modeling of three-dimensional (3D) protein structures. It pioneered the field of automated modeling starting in 1993 and is the most widely-used free web-based automated modeling facility today. In 2002 the server computed 120 000 user requests for 3D protein models. SWISS-MODEL provides several levels of user interaction through its World Wide Web interface: in the 'first approach mode' only an amino acid sequence of a protein is submitted to build a 3D model. Template selection, alignment and model building are done completely automated by the server. In the 'alignment mode', the modeling process is based on a user-defined target-template alignment. Complex modeling tasks can be handled with the 'project mode' using DeepView (Swiss-PdbViewer), an integrated sequence-to-structure workbench. All models are sent back via email with a detailed modeling report. WhatCheck analyses and ANOLEA evaluations are provided optionally. The reliability of SWISS-MODEL is continuously evaluated in the EVA-CM project. The SWISS-MODEL server is under constant development to improve the successful implementation of expert knowledge into an easy-to-use server.


Figure 1
Figure 1
SWISS-MODEL project displayed in DeepView. Project files contain the final model coordinates, accompanied by the superposed template structures. Adjustments of the underlying target-template alignment can be done manually. DeepView provides several tools to visualize and analyze the modeling results.

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