Diabetes mellitus is a serious complication following organ transplantation that is underdiagnosed, possibly due to the inadequate definitions used in published literature and the lack of standardized screening. Diabetes in transplantation amplifies the already increased risk of cardiovascular disease among transplant patients, and increases the risk of graft loss and death. Patients at risk of developing diabetes in transplantation should therefore be prospectively identified and given individualized immunosuppressive therapy to minimize the risk of developing this disease. These guidelines are intended to: (1) help identify patients at risk for diabetes after transplantation; (2) set down a standard definition of posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM); (3) create a standard monitoring protocol for the diagnosis of PTDM; and (4) optimize the management of patients at risk of developing or who develop diabetes after transplantation. With improved diagnosis, individualization of therapy, and proper early management, the incidence of diabetes in transplantation, and the accompanying additional burden of illness the disease carries, may be diminished. In turn, this will help achieve the therapeutic goals of reducing the risk of graft complications, improving quality of life, and reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality in transplant patients.