A genetic map of Pinus sylvestris was constructed using ESTP (expressed sequence tag polymorphism) markers and other gene-based markers, AFLP markers and microsatellites. Part of the ESTP markers (40) were developed and mapped earlier in Pinus taeda, and additional markers were generated based on P. sylvestris sequences or sequences from other pine species. The mapping in P. sylvestris was based on 94 F(1) progeny from a cross between plus-tree parents E635C and E1101. AFLP framework maps for the parent trees were first constructed. The ESTP and other gene sequence-based markers were added to the framework maps, as well as five published microsatellite loci. The separate maps were then integrated with the aid of AFLPs segregating in both trees (dominant segregation ratios 3:1) as well as gene markers and microsatellites segregating in both parent trees (segregation ratios 1:1:1:1 or 1:2:1). The integrated map consisted of 12 groups corresponding to the P. taeda linkage groups, and additionally three and six smaller groups for E1101 and E635C, respectively. The number of framework AFLP markers in the integrated map is altogether 194 and the number of gene markers 61. The total length of the integrated map was 1,314 cM. The set of markers developed for P. sylvestris was also added to existing maps of two P. taeda pedigrees. Starting with a mapped marker from one pedigree in the source species resulted in a mapped marker in a pedigree of the other species in more than 40% of the cases, with about equal success in both directions. The maps of the two species are largely colinear, even if the species have diverged more than 70 MYA. Most cases of different locations were probably due to problems in identifying the orthologous members of gene families. These data provide a first ESTP-containing map of P. sylvestris, which can also be used for comparing this species to additional species mapped with the same markers.