Genetic modification of conifers through gene transfer technology is now an important field in forest biotechnology. Two basic methodologies, particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, have been used on conifers. The use of particle bombardment has produced stable transgenic plants in Picea abies, P. glauca, P. mariana, and Pinus radiata. Transgenic plants have been produced from Larix decidua, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. mariana, Pinus strobus, P. taeda, and P. radiata via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has advantages over particle bombardment such as a simpler integration pattern and a limited rearrangement in the introduced DNA. At present, genetic transformation of conifers has been directed toward improving growth rate, wood properties and quality, pest resistance, stress tolerance, and herbicide resistance, which will drive forestry to enter a new era of productivity and quality.