Expression profiling has become an important tool to investigate how an organism responds to environmental changes. Plants, being sessile, have the ability to dramatically alter their gene expression patterns in response to environmental changes such as temperature, water availability or the presence of deleterious levels of ions. Sometimes these transcriptional changes are successful adaptations leading to tolerance while in other instances the plant ultimately fails to adapt to the new environment and is labeled as sensitive to that condition. Expression profiling can define both tolerant and sensitive responses. These profiles of plant response to environmental extremes (abiotic stresses) are expected to lead to regulators that will be useful in biotechnological approaches to improve stress tolerance as well as to new tools for studying regulatory genetic circuitry. Finally, data mining of the alterations in the plant transcriptome will lead to further insights into how abiotic stress affects plant physiology.