Effect of glycemic carbohydrates on short-term satiety and food intake

Nutr Rev. 2003 May;61(5 Pt 2):S17-26. doi: 10.1301/nr.2003.may.S17-S26.


We examine the relationships between glycemic carbohydrate and its effects on short-term satiety and food intake. Both high- and low-glycemic carbohydrates have an impact on satiety, but their effects have different time courses. High-glycemic carbohydrates are associated with a reduction in appetite and food intake in the short term (e.g., one hour), whereas the satiating effects of lower-glycemic carbohydrates appear to be delayed (e.g., 2 to 3 hours). There is no consistent evidence that an increase in blood glucose, either acute or sustained, is the primary determinant of their effects on food intake and satiety. Many other preabsorptive and postabsorptive signals for satiety exist and may be the determining factors. Further studies are needed to delineate the role of glycemic carbohydrates and their mechanisms of action in determining satiety.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose* / analysis
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Sucrose / administration & dosage
  • Eating / drug effects*
  • Energy Intake
  • Fructose / administration & dosage
  • Glucose / administration & dosage
  • Glycemic Index
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Obesity
  • Satiation / drug effects*
  • Starch / administration & dosage


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Sucrose
  • Fructose
  • Starch
  • Glucose